Analysis of the Effects

Analysis of the Effects of LEONARDO DA VINCI Mobility Measures on Young Trainees

Employees and the Influence of Socio-economic Factors

1) Method of Investigation

The method that was used for the survey was “Self-evaluation through completion of questionnaires”. The survey was conducted electronically (i.e. by e-mail). 28 countries were included in the survey. E-mails were sent out in January and February 2007 to all participants whose e-mail addresses were available, advising them about the survey in their own language and asking them to reply to the questionnaires (also translated into their own language) on-line. The response rate to the survey was highly satisfactory overall, with approximately 36% of correspondents completing the questionnaire. 

2) General Overview

On behalf of the European Commission, WSF – Economic and Social Research has carried out an “Impact Analysis of LEONARDO DA VINCI Mobility Measures on Young Trainees and Employees, and the Influence of Socio-economic Factors”.  The survey was designed to map the effects of the LdV programme and the socioeconomic background of participants from all participating countries as fully as possible. From January until March 2007, participants in mobility measures were surveyed. Replies were received from 8,397 people, which is a response rate of 35.2%.

3) Objectives

The main objectives of the survey were to investigate the effects that LdV Programs may have in the professional development of its participants in a series of issues.

Personal development of participant in terms of: a) key skills acquired b) professional development at work and access to employment c) social development (socio-cultural skills in general such as lifelong learning, networking, active involvement). Against a background of: d) different fields of work and employment/training sectors e) the level of education (e.g. early school leavers, secondary education or higher) f) type of training (e.g. vocational, full-time academic training, training in sandwich courses, etc., and the ratio of theoretical to practical training) g) status/position h) type of enterprise (e.g. small enterprise, large enterprise, etc.). The survey was also designed to: i) give an overview of the socio-economic situation of the young people in question j) determine other external factors, in addition to background, that influence participants’ mobility k) establish the correlation between success factors and participants’ socio-economic background l) create a statistical basis for indicators on socio-economic background, sex, type, level and year of training and field of employment, and influence on personal, vocational and social development.

4) Findings

Participants in the LdV programme (excluding students) comprise:

  • Young employees 25%, Trainees 75%, Men 46%, Women 54%

Age Structure of Participants:

  • Under 18 years old (13%), 18-25 years old (61%), Above 25 years old (27%)

Duration of stay:

  • Less than 2 months (49%), 2-6 months (43%), More than 6 months (7%)

Sector of employment/training:

  • Predominantly the service sector was represented in the LdV Programs, while hotel and catering trade as well as the educational sector are well represented too. On the contrary the manufacturing sector is under-represented.

Impact of LdV on Professional and Personal Development:

  • LdV primarily influences the participant’s personal development and the intercultural skills including language skills and better comprehension of foreign cultures (66%). Less influential but still considerable effect on professional skills.

Effect on personal skills:

Adaptability was increased (73%), Interpersonal skills were improved (72%), Knowledge about the host country was improved (70%), Ability to adapt to new challenges was improved (70%),Self-confidence was improved (70%)

Effect on Professional Skills:

Acquisition of new professional skills (52%),Application of modern information and communication media (41%)

Application of newly gained skills:

  • Interpersonal skills (71%),Dealing with new challenges (67%),Team skills (65%)

Respondents evaluated the benefit for them personally of their placement abroad as follows:

  • Very high 37%, High 54%, Moderate 7%, Low 2%, Very low 0%

Benefits on the Employer:

  • The benefits for employers are considered to be slightly less than those for the individuals. Nevertheless, the impact on vocational competences and the benefits for the employer improve with the length of stay, i.e. if the stay exceeds six months. Short-term stays (under six months) contribute more to the individual and social competences, and longer stays also increase the benefits for the employer significantly. Therefore, a two-phase model seems to be ideal, with a first period of approximately three months improving personal and social skills, followed by a second period (six to 12 months) focusing on vocational techniques in detail.

Quantifiable effects in the following areas:

  • Unemployed before mobility measure but have now found a job and are self-employed (58%),

  • Employed before measure: Have found a better job (27%), Have been promoted (24%), Have a higher income(21%), Have greater responsibility at work (34%)

  • People in initial vocational training: Have found work (36%), Have found work/training place/course abroad (32%), Are more successful in their training (37%), Are more intensively involved in training (41%)

Effects by age:

  • The benefit of the participation increases with age-Under 18 years old: 78% high or very high, Other groups: 90% high or very high


  • Willingness to go to another country decreases with age-Under 18 years old: 83% very high, Over 25 years old: 61% very high

Effects by length of stay:

  • Short term placements (less than 6 months) help to improve personal and social skills.

  • Longer placements also improve professional skills and foreign language skills

Summary of findings:

  • Main effects on personal and social skills.

  • Lasting effects: Interest in future mobility is developed, Willingness to improve foreign language skills is increased


  • LdV programme ranks among the most effective and efficient of the EU’s programs, providing European added value. LdV helps support key EU objectives such as: Lifelong learning, Adaptability, Intercultural Skills and European Integration.

About the Author: Maurizio

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